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The European Union Policy Toolbox to Support Just Transition

Many regional economies in Europe rely on fossil fuel extraction (oil, coal, or gas) or energy- and carbon-intensive production, such as steel production and electricity generation. Consequently, the large-scale deployment of low-carbon energy can succeed only if it is conducted in a fair and inclusive way for all citizens.

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This report from Resources for the Future (RFF) and the Environmental Defense Fund derives lessons from the European Union’s energy transition to help US policy-makers identify key components of just transition regulations. It also analyses EU-level programmes implemented over the period 2014–2020 and gives an overview of policy proposals in the European Green Deal for 2020–2025.

The report highlights relevant EU policies and programmes, describes their main features and showcases examples of funded projects. While many of these policies and programmes have been motivated by energy and economic concerns, such as improving energy efficiency for energy security and productivity, they also include tools that support a just transition in the context of decarbonisation.

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